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Fazer Gazeta (2)

por desvela, em 09.01.16
Quanto às notícias sobre o impacto da Execução dos Távoras na Europa, temos acesso ao ano de 1759 onde a Gazeta de Londres publica bastantes apontamentos e detalhes sobre o assunto.
Alguns são bizarros, porque mostram a especulação e contradição quando se recebem notícias em segunda ou terceira mão.

https://books.google.pt/books?id=3XMPAAAAQAAJ
____________________________________________
The Universal Chronicle

January 9, 1759 [p.11] A primeira acção do Rei (por via do futuro Marquês de Pombal) terá sido sitiar a cidade de Lisboa com 14 mil soldados, o que terá ocorrido antes de 21 de Dezembro. 
The Boscawen, Brown, arrived at Portsmouth from Oporto, which place the left at 21st of December, has brought over a letter with this remarkable postscript to it: "An express is just arrived here (Oporto) from Lisbon, with advice, that fourteen thousand of the King's troops have invested that city, and closely blocked up two monasteries in it. Upon the approach of his Majesty's troops, several Grandees fled out of the city; so that it is supposed the late plot, for assassinating the King, has been at length discovered."

January 17, 1759 [p.20] Em 30 de Dezembro a lista de implicados dá destaque ao Marquês de Alorna e outros, que depois não farão parte dos executados. (O  Duque de Aveiro é questionado a 24 de Dezembro, e o Marquês de Távora a 30 de Dezembro) [*]
(Lisbon, Dec. 30) - A Most dangerous and wicked conspiracy against the life of his Most Faithful Majesty, having been happily discovered, a considerable number of persons have been arrested by the King's order, of whom the following are the principal, viz.
Duke de Aveiro,
Marquis of Tavora, father,
Marquis of Tavora, son,
Joseph Maria, son of the said Marquis,
Joseph Maria, brother of the said Marquis,
The Count of Attouguia,
Manuel de Tavora,
Marquis de Allorna,
Don Manuel de Souza,
Nuno de Tavora,
John de Tavora,
With all their families.
A Placart has been published, in which the King makes known his most providencial escape on the third of September last, when he was attacked, at eleven o'clock at night, near the Palace, by three of the conspirators, armed with three blunderbusses, loaded with large shot, one of the blunderbusses missed fire, but the others made two large holes in the back of the carriage the King was in, and wounded him in the arm, of which his Majesty is now happily recovered, without the least hurt remaining.
The same Placart promises certain honours and rewards for the discovery of any of the criminals, with a pardon to any of the accomplices, except the Principals. 
His Most Faithful Majesty has resumed the Government of his kingdom.

January 23, 1759 [p.27] Uma notícia por via de Paris basicamente serve para confirmar um panorama de estado de sítio. 
(Paris, Jan 12) Letters received here on Saturday from Lisbon, give us the following particulars: That the King of Portugal, desiring to return God solemn thanks for having saved him from the danger to which he was exposed, had appointed a day for the Te Deum to be sung, to which solemnity he invited all the Members of the different States: That the same day the Government caused 23 persons to be arrested, Nobleman and Ladies of the Court: That the greatest part of them were confined in the citadel of Lisbon, and the rest in different strong houses.

January 31, 1759 [p.37] Uma notícia falsa vinda por via de França dava conta que tinha sido necessário cortar o braço ao Rei D. José devido à ferida!  
Letters from Portugal by the way of France intimate that the King's arm in which he received the wound had been cut off, as the only method of saving his life.

February 2, 1759 [p.39] A notícia da execução chega a Londres com mais de 2 semanas de atraso, mas já tem o relato correcto das execuções, dando ainda uma adicional lista de presos.
By a Lisbon mail arrived yesterday we have an account of the following executions there.
The Marchioness de Tavaro, beheaded.
The Duke of Aveiro, and the Marquis de Tavora, broke on the wheel.
The Count of Atouguia, the young Marquis de Tavora, Don Joye Maria the youngest, the son of the old Marquis de Tavora, a servant of his, and two servants of the Duke of Aveiro, first strangled, and then broke on the wheel. One servant of the Duke d'Aveiro's burnt alive, and another burnt in effigy. The scaffold, with the dead bodies, were consumed with fire, and their ashes thrown into the river. 
The following remained in prison, their fate uncertain: Don Jean de Tavora, Don Nuno de Tavora, Don Manuell de Tavora, Bishop of Oporto, Bishop of Evora, the Marquis de Gouvia, Marquis d'Alorno, Count de Obidas, Count de Ribeiro, Dutchess d'Aveiro, the young Marchioness de Tavora, Countess d'Autouguia, Penerardo de Tarende, and about ten Jesuits.

February 5, 1759 [p.42] O relato é agora bastante pormenorizado, por comparação à Gazeta de Lisboa. O Duque de Lafões foi substituído como Juiz por "indisposição". Após as prisões, e interrogatório, o processo foi fechado na Quinta-Feira, dia 11 (há documentos improvisados, mostrando que os réus tinham sido notificados da culpa no final do dia 10), e a execução deu-se no Sábado, dia 13 às 8h30 da manhã. O dia 12 terá sido o julgamento, ou melhor, praticamente apenas terá havido tempo para a leitura da sentença. A notícia começa por dizer que os Condes de Óbidos e Ribeira Grande teriam sido presos apenas por "delito de opinião".
É contada a história oficial com algum detalhe, e a saída da família real, na semana seguinte para Salvaterra de Mago, para diversão e caça. O detalhe do rei acenar com ambas as mãos à população, também é ilustrativo da charada. 
(Lisbon, Jan. 20) On the 1st inst, the Count de Obidos, and the Count de Ribeiragrande, were sent to the castle of St. Julians, and guards placed at the doors of their respective dwelling houses; but in general it is thought that these two Gentlemen are not implicated in the conspiracy, but rather that they have been too free of speech. 
On Thursday the 4th inst, the Dutchess of Aveiro, the Countess of Atouguia, and the Marchionesse of Alorna, and their children, were sent to different nunneries. 
On Friday the 11th inst, eight Jesuits were taken into custody. A Council was appointed by the King, for the trial of the prisoners, composed of the three Secretaries of State, the person acting as Chief Justice in the room of the Duke of Alafoens, who is still indisposed, and five other Judges, the Solicitor for the Crown being present. The whole process was closed on Tuesday the 9th inst. The Marchioness of Tavora, Wife to the General of horse, being brought on Wednesday the ioth, from the Convent das Grillas, to the place where the other criminals were confined: This Lady was one of the chief instruments in this conspiracy.
Execução dos Távoras e dos Álvares Ferreira, criados do Duque.
Toda a documentação oficial do Processo no sítio:
Capitão Domingos
Saturday the 13th instant, being the day appointed for the execution, a scaffold had been built in the square, opposite to the house where the prisoners were confined, and eight wheels fixed upon it. On one corner of the scaffolding was placed Antonio Alvares Ferreira, and on the other corner the effigy of Joseph Policarpio de Azevedo, who is still missing; these being the two persons that fired at the back of the King's equipage. About half an hour after eight o'clock in the morning the execution began. The criminals were brought out one by one, each under a strong guard. The Marchioness of Tavora was the first that was brought upon the scaffold, where she was beheaded at one stroke. Her body was afterwards placed upon the floor of the scaffolding, and covered with a linnen cloth. Young Joseph Maria ot Tavora, the young Marquis of Tavora, the Count of Atouguia, and three servants of the Duke of Aveiro, were first strangled at a stake, and afterwards their limbs broken with an iron instrument; the Marquis of Tavora, General of Horse, and the Duke of Aveiro, had their limbs broken alive. The Duke, for greater ignominy, was brought bare-headed to the place of execution. The body and limbs of each of the criminals, after they were executed, were thrown upon a wheel, and covered with a linen cloth. But when Antonio Alvares Ferreira was brought to the stake, whose sentence was to be burnt alive, the other bodies were exposed to his view; the combustible matter, which had been laid under the scaffolding, was set on fire, the whole machine, with the bodies, were consumed to ashes, and thrown into the sea.
A summary of the process and sentence has been prjnted, the most remarkable passages of which are as follow:
That the old Marchioness of Tavora, the Duke of Aveiro, and the Jesuits, were the principal Instigators and Actors in this conspiracy: 
That the Marchioness seduced her husband, and the other relations: That, there were several conferences held at the Jesuits colleges called Santo Antam and St. Roque, at the Marquis of Tavora's, and at the Duke's: 
That the union of these noblemen with the Jesuits was since the time that the King dismissed those of that order from the palace: 
That all the male criminals, now executed, were in the field on the third of September, in different parties, waiting for the King: 
That the Duke of Aveiro was with the two men, who shot at the King's equipage, and was the person that first presented his piece to the postilion, which missed fire: 
That forty moidores were collected among these noblemen, and given to these two men: the Duke's hatred to the person of the King is set in a strong light; and the motives alledged in this paper, for this wicked Project, are, the Duke's being disappointed in marrying his son to a sister of the Duke of Cadaval, who is a Minor; the King having thought proper, that this match should be put off, till the Duke of Cadaval should be married, and have an heir. Another motive of disgust was, the Duke's being disappointed in a law-suit for some Commanderies, which the late Duke of Aveiro possessed. The Marchioness's great cause of resentment was, that her husband was not made a Duke, when he came from the East-Indies, which he had often desired, but could never obtain, because he had carried the reward of the service he was going upon, with him, it being always customary for the King to pass particular grants to the Viceroy, upon his being appointed, and before he sets out upon his voyage. 
The estates of these Noblemen are all confiscated to the Crown, the dwelling-houses to be razed to the ground, and the name of Tavora never to be used by any person whatever; this family being the principal branch of that name. The name of Mascarenhas, which was the Duke of Aveiro's, is spared, because his family is a younger branch of the families of that name.
A reward ot 10 000 crowns is offered to whoever shall apprehend the person of Joseph Policarpio de Azevedo.
The embargo was taken off the shipping the 16th instant: The three English men of war, the Merchant ships under their convoy, and the Hanover packet, which sailed the 31st of December, are the only ships that have gone out of this port, from the 13th of December to the day the embargo was taken off.
The King and the Royal Family assisted on Monday the 15th instant, at a Te Deum sung at the Chapel of Nossa Senhora do Livramento, in Thanksgiving for His most Faithful Majesty's happy recovery. As this was the first time that his Majesty had appeared abroad, great demonstrations of joy were shewn by the people, to whom the King was pleased to give the satisfaction of waving his handkerchief, first in one hand, then in the other, to shew that he had the use of both. Te Deum for the King's recovery has also been sung in all the Churches and Chapels throughout the Kingdom.
Their Majesties, and the Royal Family, set out yesterday the 19th for Salvaterra, to take their usual diversion of shooting and hawking.


February 6, 1759 [p.44] A duquesa de Aveiro será libertada, mas consta que morre na miséria.
They write from Lisbon, that the Duchess d'Aveiro and her three daughters are to be confined during their lives in the Nunnery of the Mother of God.

February 13, 1759 [p.54] A preocupação dos Jesuítas chega ao Papa a Roma, mas nada é feito.
(Rome, Jan. 17) The General of the Jesuits has lately presented a Memorial to the Pope, the object of which is, to try to moderate, if not entirely revoke the Brief of the late Pope Benedict XIV with regard to the apostolical visiting of the houses and colleges of the Society in Portugal. In this Memorial are represented the troubles which have attended the execution of the Brief, which is one of the principal arguments used against it. But the Pope has declared, that he will come to no resolution on that head, till he be more amply informed of the affair.

Entende-se aqui que durante as operações militares que sitiaram Lisboa, para efeitos da prisões da nobreza envolvida, o próprio Porto de Lisboa fechou operações.
(Lisbon, Jan. 1) The embargo which was laid on all shipping, foreign and domestick, was taken off the 19th ult.

O ataque aos Jesuítas é conduzido em simultâneo, invadindo os seus Conventos, e levando à prisão de um dos reitores. O Marquês de Pombal não saía sem uma guarda, que foi duplicada.
(Lisbon, Jan. 3) There must be strong grounds of suspicion against the Jesuits; for last Saturday the King's Ministers went to the Convents, and visited even the vaults where they deposit their dead.

(Lisbon, Jan. 8) Within these few days all the guards have been doubled before the King's palace, and no one is suffered to enter the Court without an express order. M. de Carvalho, the Secretary of State, who, in executing these orders, had all the reason imaginable to provide for his own safety, does not stir abroad without a party of horse guards to attend him.
The whole city is in a consternation, apprehending very justly the consequences of a conspiracy, in which the greatest families in the kingdom appear to be concerned. More persons are daily imprisoned. The Father Rector of the Jesuits College of St. Patrick was ordered yesterday before M. de Carvalho, and after a long examination was committed to prison. All the Jesuits houses are still closely guarded.

(Rouen, Feb. 1) Capt. Rodrigues, who arrived yesterday at Havre-de-grace from Lisbon in eleven days, reports, that on the day of his departure twelve more of the conspirators were to be executed.

Uma notícia muito atrasada e bizarra por via de Bruxelas e marinheiros naufragados na Madeira, e outra ainda mais bizarra que chega por via de Paris, ilustram diversas "versões do acontecimento", ou simples boatos lançados que serviram propósitos de confusão da população.
(Brussels, Jan. 28) By letters from Lisbon, dated the 28th ult. we learn, that two sailors belonging to a vessel which was shipwrecked in her passage from the Island of Madeira, but who had saved themselves by swimming, bad, on their arrival at Lisbon, related that there was a civil war in the above Island. It having been published there that the King of Portugal was killed, and that the Duke d'Aveiro had caused himself to be proclaimed King, by the name of Joseph II. That the Father of a certain Order had exhorted the people to acknowledge him; that the Governor been taken up at Lisbon; that the conspiracy extends further than was at first thought, and that not withstanding the detection of the chief authors thereof, it might yet occasion great confusion in Portugal. Several Jesuits are taken up, but it is not said whether the Society is concerned or not in this black design.

(Paris, Jan. 29) It has been reported for some days, that two Portuguese Jesuits have been arrested in France, and sent under a guaid to Lisbon, which report may probably arise from the unfavourable dispositions which people in general have for the Society.
M. z. We hear that the conspiracy against the King of Portugal was discovered in the following manner. The King while he was ill of his wounds lived retired, with a few of his most faithful Courtiers. His Majesty caused it to be reported in Lisbon that he was at the point of death. He at the same time ordered a vessel to sail for the Brasils, and gave the Captain a packet sealed up, which he was not to open but in a certain latitude. The vessel having sailed, and being arrived at the Azores Islands the Capt, opened the packet. He there found an express order from the King to stop at that place, to read all the papers and letters that should be found on board, to seize such of the passengers as he thought suspected, and then return to give his Majesty an account of what discoveries he had made. This order was punctually executed, the papers were examined, the letters opened and read, and the vessel returned to Lisbon. They were all put into the King's hands, who by that means discovered the principal Conspirators.

February 19, 1759 [p.58] Uma notícia atrasada ainda mais bizarra, por via de Espanha, que não fala da caça de El Rey, mas sim da grande caca de D. José, entendida como sinal de melhoras.
(Madrid, Jan. 1) Some advices just received from Villa-viciosa, and dated yesterday import, that the King had rested pretty well the night before, and that his Majesty having had a strong evacuation that morning, had of his own accord called for clean linnen, and ordered one of the windows of his apartment to be opened, which ever since his illness have been kept quite close. This is looked upon as a happy omen, and we begin to hope that bis Majesty may possibly recover.


Lamúria papal sobre os acontecimentos em Portugal, que sendo o reino mais brando, passava a pior que todos os restantes juntos.
(Rome, Jan. 24) The Pope has been greatly affected with the news of the disturbances in Portugal, and when he was told, that the Archbishop of Evora and the Bishop of Porto, both of the Tavora family, were among the number of the persons imprisioned by order of his Most Faithful Majesty, he could not refrain from crying out, "Good God, what calamities hast thou kept in store for thy church. The kingdom that had hitherto been the quietest, now gives us more solicitude and trouble than all the others put together. Is it for our sins, great God, that this happens under our pontificate?"

February 19, 1759 [p.58] A marquesa de Távora terá, dirigindo-se ao povo, dito que era culpada de "indiscrição". Pediu ao executor para não lhe tocar e facilitou o desfecho do golpe fatal.
(Hague, Feb. 10) The last letters from Lisbon contain the following particulars relating to the execution of the Marchioness of Tavora :
"That Lady, who was one of the first in the city, on coming to the place of execution, ascended the scarfold with great coolness, turned to the people, spoke to them with an intrepid voice, and said she deserved death for her indiscretion. Then turning to the Executioner, she desired him not to touch her, and told him that she would do every thing that was necessary herself. Accordingly she put her hands to her head, tied back her hair, covered her eyes with her handkerchief, and waited for the fatal blow."

February 21, 1759 [p.60] Sob tortura, o duque de Aveiro terá confessado a culpa, arrastado pela liderança de 3 padres jesuítas.
According to our advices from Lisbon, the Duke of Aveiro confessed when put to the torture, and persisted in it till the last, that he was drawn into the conspiracy against the King by three Jesuits (one an Italian, the others Portuguese), who had been dismissed from being Confessors to the Royal Family. These three are confined in separate prisons, and have no mercy to expect; but the government will punish none of the Members of this society till they know the whole number concerned in the plot.

February 21, 1759 [p.63] Aqui estará descrita a maior parte da razão pela qual os manos atacavam esta velha nobreza. Um dos pontos essenciais ao poder dos manos era evitar oposição com secretismo, afinal prática a ser exclusiva dos próprios. Os jesuítas eram um dos alvos visados, sendo o outro uma família que se fechava nos seus casamentos, não se abrindo à colocação de influências na sua família. A indiscrição de Leonor de Távora, na oposição aberta ao Marquês de Pombal, foi apenas uma provocação ao executante, mas o problema dos mandantes era outro... Claro que o fantasma dos Bragança, e de D. José, seria a legitimidade da Casa de Aveiro, mas o ataque a toda família Távora é de cariz diferente.  Curiosamente, o Duque de Aveiro seria presidente do último tribunal de apelo no reino... cargo ineficiente em causa própria. 
   DON Joseph Mascarenhas and Lencastre (or Lancaster) Duke of Aveiro, Marquis of Torres Novas, and of Gouvea, and Earl of Santa Cruz, hereditary Lord Steward ot the King's household, which is the highest office of the Palace, and President of the Palace-Court, or last tribunal of appeal in the kingdom, which is the second State Officer of the realm, was related himself to the Tavoras, and married to a sister of the older Marquis of that title. He was in the 51st year of his age; of the lowest middle size, well made in his person, and of an agreeable countenance, and lively disposition.
   Lady Eleanor Marchioness of Tavora, in her own right, and wife to the Marquis, was in the 59th year of her age: She was of the lower middle size, and thin; extremely genteel, and in her youth had been very beautiful. In the duties of life she appeared highly amiable, being an extreme good mother, and demonstrated herself as good a wife, by accompanying her husband to India at the age of 50, when he was appointed Viceroy of the Portugueze dominions in that country; of which undertaking, before hers, there had been but a single example. Her deportment in general was courteous and affable, and she was allowed to be a Lady of a good understanding.
   Francisco de Assis and Tavora (this family being above taking the title of Don) Marquis of Tavora and Earl of St. John and of Alvor, General of Horse, &c. This Nobleman was himself the eldest branch of the Alvor family, the third noble house of the Tavoras and by marrying his kinswoman, the heiress of the said Marquisate, became, in her right, the Earl of St. John and Marquis of Tavora. 
   The family of Tavora is the most illustrious of the kingdom, as well for the purity as antiquity of their descent; deriving their origin from the Kings of Leon, and having ever preserved their dignity, by disdaining to make any other than the most noble alliances; insomuch, that it has of late been the practice of the chief branches of this family to marry only with one another. 
Antigo solar dos Távoras em Souro Pires
   They themselves conquered from the Moors the lands they possess, and on which there is a town, a river, and an ancient castle of their name; and they even pretend to be Lords of Tavora, by the Grace-of God. The Marquis was in the 56th year of his age, of the highest middle stature; a genteel person, comely countenance, and grave deportment.
   Luis Bernardo de Tavora, younger Marquis of that title, was the eldest son of the above-mentioned couple, and in rhe 36th year of his age. He was married, with a dispensation from the Pope, to his father youngest sister, Dona Theresa se Tavora, and Lorena (or Lorain) who was twenty days elder than himself. This is the Lady who is said to be in the nunnery of Santos, without our having been informed wether was sent thither a prisoner by order of the Court. She is a middle-sized Lady, comely in her person, and extremely elegant in her deportment. The Marquis, her husband, was a little man, and thin: well enough made, but not of a pleasing aspect, tho' with a considerable resemblance of his mother. He was neither deficient in wit nor humour, but not amiable in his conduct, nor extremely correct in his morals. This couple have a daughter living, in the twelfth year of her age, Dona Joanna de Tavora, who is exceedingly beautiful; but who is, by the sentence of her father, grandfather and grandmother, deprived of the very name, of which shw would otherwise have become chief.
  Don Jeronymo de Ataide, Earl of Attougia, one of the oldest, if not the most ancient, title of the kingdom. This Nobleman was in the 38th year of his age, related himself to the Tavoras, and married to the eldest daughter of the elder Marquis and Marchioness of Tavora, sister to the young Marquis and Joseph Maria of that name. He was of a middle feature, clumsy in his make, of a heavy aspect, and ungraceful demeanour, and of low parts, but in his general conduct an inoffensive man.
  Joseph Maria de Tavora, second and youngest son of the elder Marquis and Marchioness of Tavora, in the 23d year of his age; of a middle size, most beautiful face, genteel person, agreeable deportment, and amiable disposition.

February 26, 1759 [p.66] A notícia de que a mãe do Duque de Aveiro morre quando toma conhecimento da notificação de culpa, três dias antes da execução.
(Lisbon, Jan 16)  The Duke of Aveiro's Mother was living four days before his execution. She had happily taken the veil some years ago, and died on the 10th by the shock she received from her son's horrible attempt against the life of his Sovereign.

Uma notícia atrasada, por via de Paris, e que seria falsa, pois os 3 jesuítas acusados ainda não teriam sido mortos. Malagrida só será garrotado e queimado em 1761, por acusação diversa, de heresia.
(Paris, Feb 4) The King asked Father Desmaretz, his Confessor, today: 'Have you no news from Lisbon?' "None, sire" replied the Jesuit. 'Then I tell you (said the King) three of your brethren are hanged there".

March 6, 1759 [p.76] -  extractos de outras cartas de Lisboa

April 11, 1759 [p.117] A Marquesa de Atouguia recebe notícia de execução, desmaia, e ao ouvir o perdão, apresenta sinais de demência.
There is advice from Lisbon, that the Jesuit, late Confessor of the King, is dead in prison. Several letters say, that it will require much labour to settle things. M. de Carvalho, who spares no pains to purge the kingdom, hath been often in danger of his life. His guards are augmented to 500 men; and the patrols are doubled. The Marchioness of Atouguia was condemned to death. Her sentence was read, and at the same time her pardon was delivered to her. But she was so much struck with her sentence, that, without reflecting on her pardon, she fainted away. She was brought to herself, but hath been foolish ever since.

June 13, 1759 [p.188] Notícia do fim do ducado de Aveiro, e as represálias contra os Jesuítas. São aqui nomeados os três principais implicados - Malagrida, padre italiano, mais conhecido, e os portugueses Matos e Alexandre. A jovem marquesa de Távora, suposta amante de D. José, era então libertada e passaria a usufruir de "boa pensão".
(Lisbon, May 7) The King has made the town of Aveiro a demesne of the Crown; which is a proof that the title of Duchy, which that town had, will remain extinct for ever. The Rector of the College of Jesuits of the town of Santarem has been brought hither, bound hands and feet, for throwing some papers into the fire when the troops invested the College. There are now no Jesuits at Setubal, they having all been sent to St. Roch, or committed to publick prisons. Thirty-five others of these fathers have been brought from divers parts of this kingdom, and shut up, part in the castle of this city, and the other part in the port of Junqueira. The famous chiefs of the conspirators, Malagrida, Matos, and Alexandro, have been conveyed to the tower of St. John, upon representations made to the King that they could not possibly live in the dungeons built for them. For the same reason the prisons of Counts d'Obidos and Ribeira have been changed. The young Marchieness of Tavora is no longer confined in the Convent of All Saints. It is even said that the King has granted her a handsome pension.

--------

Depois do ataque feito à Coroa de Inglaterra por Cromwell, a Execução dos Távoras é talvez o episódio mais significativo de ataque interno à nobreza na Idade Moderna. 
O ataque tem toda as características de se integrar numa das linhas de actuação da maçonaria, e especialmente para se enquadrar como episódio preparativo para a Revolução Francesa, marco escolhido para a Idade Contemporânea, 30 anos depois, em 1789.
Também no caso da Revolução Francesa toda a aristocracia será impotente para deter a máquina do Estado, que processará mesmo a realeza, e não apenas a nobreza.

Curiosamente, é interessante vermos como ganharam significado pejorativo os termos: 
- vilão, vilania
- burguês, burguesia
... e que inicialmente designariam apenas os habitantes de uma vila, ou de um burgo medieval.
Por oposição, ainda mantêm hoje um significado positivo, os termos ligados à cidade:
- cidadão, cidadania
... mas poderia não ter sido assim, dado o Reino de Terror que se seguiu à Revolução Francesa, em que todos eram cidadãos, mas onde essa real ou nobre cidadania parisiense terminava demasiadas vezes na guilhotina.
Subindo ainda da cidade para a capital, vemos como se associam os termos:
- capital, capitalismo,
... tal como se descermos ao ponto da pequena comunidade, obteremos:
- comuna, comunismo.

O que a velha designação "vilão e vilania" pode indicar, como antiquíssima percepção dos aldeões, é que o sistema de fazer crescer os aglomerados, ao aumentar os grupos agregados de indivíduos, produzia uma máquina em que o seu o corpo social se embebia num desrespeito pelos velhos muros, pelo mural antigo, pela moral antiga. 

(terminado a 9/01/2015)


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publicado às 07:44


1 comentário

De Alvor-Silves a 31.01.2016 às 10:48

Uma correcção feita - o interrogatório do Marquês de Távora foi a 30 de Dezembro, e não é invocado nenhum dia extraordinário, isso deveu-se a ter lido "dois" em vez de "dias", e "d'extro" onde era "dexbro", para dezembro. O manuscrito está em péssimo estado, e a caligrafia de quem o escreveu, deixa muito a desejar...
Uma boa transcrição está aqui:
https://archive.org/stream/oprocessodostv00tv

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  14. 2016
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  27. 2015
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  40. 2014
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  53. 2013
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  66. 2012
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  79. 2011
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  92. 2010
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